An architect who creates a master plan for a new or develops the same for an existing city can be inspired by a wide variety of things or phenomena. For example, geometric shapes, toys of children, symbols of secret societies or clerical badges.
Often from a bird's eye view in the outlines of the settlement you can find amazing things!
In the middle of the XX century, the presidential candidate of the United States of Brazil, Jocelino Kubitschek, swore to achieve qualitative changes in the development of the country over a five-year period, as well as to transfer the center of the state from Rio, which was languishing from the capital functions. Having received a mandate from the people, he zealously took up the fulfillment of election promises. The chief architect of the new capital city was appointed Lucio Costa. Thanks to his efforts on the map, it is now possible to easily distinguish an airplane that has spread its wide wings over the earth's surface.
Costa, however, during his lifetime claimed that this was not an airplane, but a butterfly, in the wings of which there are microdistricts stretching for six kilometers, striving for the architectural dominant of the city - the Square of the Three Powers, where the heart of politics and the economy of the young and bright Brazilian state beats. Here are the National Bank, the Congress building and many other administrative buildings.
Washington: Circles, Triangles, and Masonic Symbols
The capital city of the United States was founded in 1791 by the architectural master Andrew Elliot. He walked along the perimeter of the land allocated for the construction of the city and marked it with the help of 40 large boulders.
The development of the immediate plan was entrusted to the Frenchman Pierre Lanfan, and he pulled back well, providing the city with such a serious set of hidden signs and symbols that you wonder. In addition, everything was perfectly inscribed in the "recess" of the Potomac River. The streets formed a clear and simple grid, and the most important objects were located in round or triangular squares. The most important buildings, according to the architect, were the Congress and the president's palace (although the latter was supposed to be slightly larger, like five times).
It was not possible to fully implement everything: another architect, Andre Elikot, made some changes to the project, after which Masonic stars appeared on the map. This fact is reflected in Dan Brown's novel The Lost Symbol.
Palmanova: Star of Utopia
This Italian town is located in the province of Friuli-Venezia-Julia, a little more than five thousand people live here. Probably, this is why the city managed to preserve its original appearance.
Palmunova was built in the XVI century as a fortification designed to protect Venice from Turkish attacks. Much here was arranged with an eye on Thomas More's book "Utopia".
From above, the city is a nine-cornered star surrounded by a moat. All bastions can be shot through by crossfire, but the most interesting find is due to the fact that the fortress is built below the level of the ground surface, which makes it invisible to the enemy, and shelling seriously complicates.
Chandigarh: Arches and Squares
Perhaps the largest brainchild of the brilliant Le Corbusier. Built in the 1950s after India's independence, it is now recognized as one of the most beautiful on the planet.
It is divided into 47 squares, each of which is separate administratively, has its own schools, a business center, temple buildings and public spaces. In fact, there are 47 small cities within one metropolis. Initially, it was supposed to be surrounded by a green ring, which does not allow it to expand beyond measure.
In addition to the master plan, Corbusier designed several administrative buildings with impressive arches, whose unique design is designed to disperse hot air and serve as a giant air conditioning system.
The local capitol – a complex of three administrative buildings – is celebrated by UNESCO as a monument.
El Salvador: Roman helmet
The city is located in Chile, not in the state of the same name. It owes its appearance to the American mining company Anaconda Copper Mining Company, which in the early 1950s began active geological exploration in search of a place where it would be easy to extract coal for at least forty years.
Contrary to the tradition of building favelas at the mines, it was decided to make favelas here on conscience and build an independent, in fact, an autonomous settlement capable of serving itself and supplying everything necessary.
According to legend, the head of the organization went to the site to assess the prospects with his son. And he, in turn, dragged a Roman helmet to the future construction site. Many years later, when his father had already died, and his son took his place in the management of the company, he discovered from the window of the plane that the shape of the settlement resembled his helmet.
This, however, is only a beautiful legend, nothing more. The project was created by Raymond Alston in such a way as to best fit everything into the landscape and at the same time get away from the monotonous despondency of the classic villages of miners. Hence the color diversity.
Jaipur: pink rectangles
This city is known as pink. Most of the ancient buildings dating back to the XVIII century are made of stone of this color. It was founded in 1728 by the magaraja Sawai Jai Singh, while the enlightened sovereign personally engaged in the planning of the city, consulted with venerable engineers and architects from Europe.
The principles of traditional Indian architecture Of Vastu Shastra were taken as a basis, which are based on a combination of geometric symbols and symmetrical solutions, as well as shilpa shastra (nothing more than regulations for the creation of religious buildings). The final plan consists of nine virtually autonomous units. According to legend, the nine appeared for a reason, and the plan of the city is a kind of mandala of nine squares, symbolizing the planets. The astronomical preferences of Lord Sawai are also reflected in one of the first modern observatories in India, Jantar Mantar, where the largest sundial on Earth is installed.
La Plata: city of diagonals
This Argentine city from the very beginning was created on the principles of utilitarianism. When Buenos Aires was given the status of a federal district with the acquisition of metropolitan functions, the province of La Plata needed a new administrative center. Designer Petro Benoit created a master plan, where the central square and park are superimposed on a diagonal four-pointed star.