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2022-06-13 18:40:14

How are the countries of the world struggle with the outflow of students and specialists?

How are the countries of the world struggle with the outflow of students and specialists?

For the first time, the term "brain drain" was introduced into circulation in the 60s to denote the phenomenon of mass migration of specialists, which acquired the character of a mass phenomenon and turned into a serious problem, especially for low-developed countries. Politicians of the latter even called the policy of the leading states to lure specialists away as looting.

We will look at this phenomenon from some angles and call for the preservation of objectivity.

Who leaves most often?

Specialists go abroad for various reasons. This may be a desire to take advantage of the opportunities that are absent at home, to get acquainted with a new cultural space for oneself, to avoid political difficulties.

For example, almost two million French people officially work abroad. Among those who emigrated, 25% are graduates of engineering colleges. Basically, in their new homeland, they work in medicine, the tourism sector, the IT sector in all its diversity. For those who work in the "third sector" or the sphere of culture, it is much more difficult to leave.

But in the US , the situation is exactly the opposite - managers and marketers from there are waiting all over the world with open arms.

Developing countries are noticeably more affected by brain flight. For example, there are more Ghanaian or Gabonese doctors in the British capital than in these countries themselves, and in the United States there are more nurses and brothers from the Philippines than on the islands. By the way, in the Silicon Valley, Indian citizens also work more than in their native Bangalore. More than 4/5 of the scientists who were born in such countries of the second and third world as El Salvador, Colombia, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, work in the United States of America – by profession or not.

Where do they leave from?

  • Africa (Morocco)

Last year, more than 8,000 managers and at least 500 engineering workers left Morocco. According to statistics, 90% of Moroccans under the age of 30 would like to work and live abroad. Of these, half would like to improve their living conditions, and 65% would like to ensure that there are no opportunities for career growth in the country. There are many reasons for this: from a low quality of life to specific working conditions and low wages.

National authorities hinder the recruitment activities of Europeans and Americans on the territory of their country, trying to preserve a valuable human resource. It is understandable: UNCTAD considered that Africa spends billions annually in order to compensate for the departure of its specialists from the country.

This state has always been considered one of the most affected by the phenomenon of brain drain: almost all highly qualified specialists from here leave for America or Great Britain. It is understandable: a corrupt society, disgusting conditions for doing business and many problems make life here a little more difficult than in all neighboring countries.

Universities are overcrowded. Paradox: it is easier for an Indian to enter the USA, Great Britain, China or Russia than to study at home!

Developing countries are not the only ones suffering from the flight of personnel. In March 2019, the exit from the EU entailed a restriction on the freedom of movement of highly qualified professionals.

Despite the fact that the degree of effectiveness and control of the imposed restrictions is still not clear, and the authorities avoid certainty, there has already been a flow of finance and brains to Ireland, France, Germany and even Eastern European countries: the costs there are less, and the quality of life of specialists can be no worse than in the West.

How to Stop the Brain Drain

Massive emigration is due to various reasons, there is no single universal approach in principle. But there are successful practices when the authorities were able to keep talented young people and even lure back those who have already left.

  • China: From "Leakage" to Return

The harsh regime and related restrictions are forcing an insane number of people to leave China. Most often they go to study, but then often stay in a new country: only a little more than 30% return.

But the situation is changing before our eyes, as the Chinese authorities encourage direct investment in education and modern technologies – from AI to automated systems. Therefore, it is more convenient and easier for engineering specialists, business and financial tycoons to work inside the country today. Those who want to stay in China, but are prone to adventure, are left with the opportunity to work through Hong Kong or Macau – parts of China that are much more integrated into the world economy.

  • India and medical students

Indian studies show that the number of students from this state abroad has increased by 260% over the past decade. For this reason, the country's authorities have introduced a rule according to which Indians who go to work in the United States are obliged to return. U.S. authorities have been forced to agree and deny practice to Indian doctors burdened by such an agreement.

  • France and helping those who return

Every year, the Fifth Republic is carried away by 85,000 migrants on the soles of their shoes. The reasons for the flight are simple and understandable: it is too difficult and expensive to conduct business, and the tax burden is prohibitive, because the Frenchman has to give more than half of the income to the state.

In 2015, the most important technology corporations in the country entered into a consortium whose goal was to increase the attractiveness of the Fifth Republic for technical specialists. It was called "Reviens Léon, we innovate at home". Along with offering a good job, expats received personal assistance to those wishing to return and assistance in overcoming bureaucratic barriers, interacting with various authorities.

How to attract foreign personnel?

The most successful defense is offense. By investing in education, countries can attract their own "brains from abroad"

  • Canada and the Integrated Rating System

For example, Canada introduced the CRS point system to cope with the growth of applications from foreigners wishing to work in this jurisdiction. Thanks to this system, the authorities were able to evaluate profiles and qualifications according to various criteria. If a person scores a sufficient number of points, he gets a vacancy.

  • France and new types of visa documents

The French resorted to another solution: they began to issue a special specialized residence permit, Visa French Tech. It was introduced to facilitate the emigration to France of highly qualified technicians; designed for 4 years and allows you to come with your wife and children.

The peculiarity of this document is an unusually low price, as well as in the fact that corporations in the technological profile included in the lists of the government can request such permission. An additional condition, according to which you need to prove that you have searched for and have not found the same specialist in your country, does not apply. And an employee does not even need to have a diploma of higher education!

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Egor Eremeev
Current material has been prepared by Egor Eremeev
Education: Westminster University (Business & Management), London.
Egor studied and lived in the UK for 8 years and graduated from the university of Westminster. He is currently the co-founder and the director of business development at Smapse Education and personally visits foreign schools and universities, interviews students studying in those institutions.
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