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2021-12-27 17:44:12

TOP-5 most famous and largest cities in the world

TOP-5 most famous and largest cities in the world

To this day, on planet Earth, settlements have been preserved that are not visible from satellites, which can hardly be found on the map. Some of them boast hundreds of years of history, others appeared recently, but all are united by the fact that they are located below the surface level.

Cappadocia. Derinkuyu

The city found in Nevsehir has a chance to become the largest on earth, but in general, buildings underground are very characteristic of this part of Turkey. In Cappadocia alone, there are more than two hundred such "bunkers".

A great help in the construction of the "subways" was the specific landscape and geology: in these places there are practically no trees, and durable tuff of volcanic origin is soft and easily processable. That is why the ancient settlers preferred not to build houses upwards, but to burrow deeper - some ancient settlements could have up to 20 levels and accommodated up to 15-20 thousand people along with their belongings.

The largest Cappadocian dungeon city is Considered to be Derinkuyu: its clearing is still ongoing, although the first eight levels are already available to the public (it is assumed that there are more than 15 of them, with a depth of over 80 meters). Twenty thousand inhabitants could live here. In addition to housing, the city has premises for keeping livestock, a winery, an underground cemetery, a large granary. The ventilation shaft system allows you to keep the air fresh at all levels.

Views on who exactly created the complex differ. Some archaeologists and historians believe that these are Phrygians, others - that it belongs to the Hittite tribes. In the fifth century, it became the refuge of Christian sects, which protected themselves from the raids of nomadic tribes, and then - the Muslim hordes. During this period, a catacomb church and even two schools were built here.

The city is connected by an underground corridor with another - Kaymakli, which also served as a refuge for the Christian population during the conquest of these places by the Arabs.

Naur

Not only Turkey can boast of such subways - in Picardy Noir in the north of France, residents for centuries at the slightest danger descended into the dungeons. This began in the VIII-IX century, when the northern coast of France suffered from Viking raids.

For protection, the local cellars were used during the war between England and France in 1337-1453, and during the Spanish invasion in 1618-1648. Then the defensive function faded into the background, and Naur began to be used as a giant warehouse. Finally, it was abandoned in the thirties of the XIX century, when the threat of collapse hung over the inhabitants.

The dungeons accommodated all the inhabitants of the city with a total number of up to 3 thousand together with scarves and livestock, since sometimes it was necessary to wait a lot of time. Therefore, in the thickness of the earth there was an excellent kitchen with an ingenious chimney, which did not allow to find hiding inhabitants along the smoky trail.

The townspeople did not deny themselves anything: in addition to the barn and living quarters, there were several workshops, a church for four hundred people and even a prison block - in case someone under the ground had a discord with his head or conscience.

The dungeon is no exception, but rather the norm for the northern French provinces, whose inhabitants regularly became victims of external aggression. In total, archaeologists know of 75 such protected dungeons, some of which are very powerful fortifications with concentric protection, false galleries and many traps for intruders and enemy scouts.

Underground Beijing

Cities below the surface level were built not only by the ancients. The incredible boom in the middle and second half of the XX century was associated with the incredible cruelty of the wars that swept the world, with the discovery of nuclear decay and the invention of the atomic and then hydrogen bomb.

The largest and most famous such city can be considered located under the Chinese capital - it was built in ten years from 1969 to 1980 against the background of the aggravation of Soviet-Chinese relations. At that time, Beijing considered a nuclear conflict with its northern neighbor more likely than a war with the American imperialists.

According to the calculations of the builders, the tunnels with a length of more than 600 and an area of 90 square kilometers were supposed to accommodate 35% of the urban population. At a depth of twenty meters, shops, medical and educational institutions, even restaurants were created - all the necessary infrastructure.

Currently, the lion's share of shelters are closed – and no one can imagine for what purposes they are used. A smaller part became offices, shopping centers, as well as tourist accommodation facilities. Despite the commercialization, the Beijing authorities are closely monitoring to ensure that the infrastructure of the facility is maintained at a decent level.

Burlington

The Chinese were not the only ones who feared a global thermonuclear conflict. Numerous government shelters underground were built in the Soviet Union and the United States (there were also private ones – at one time, advertisements for standard projects of underground houses in case of serious showdowns with heavy arguments between the Soviets and the Western world were placed in magazines and newspapers, and were broadcast on national television).

The British near the town of Korsham in the Wiltshire hinterland created Burlington - a colossal bomb shelter for 4 thousand people; it was believed that in the event of an escalation of the conflict, it would be a refuge for the state apparatus, which would be able to continue to lead the country even from underground. All this was designed for 90 days; the prudent British even built a pub for the "guests" of this unusual place.

By the end of the 60s, it became clear that evacuation from London would be impossible due to the reduction of the flight time of warheads to several minutes. Until the end of the Cold War, it was used as a reserve command post and weapons depot, and then declassified and looking for a way to transfer to civilian rails. There were, for example, proposals to create in these mines the largest cellar for wine bottles on the European continent.

Coober Pedy

Not all underground settlements were destined to change their functions - for example, the Australian Coober Pedy still serves as housing for hundreds of people. It appeared in the mid-1910s, when the world's largest opal deposit was discovered in the outback.

From the language of one of the local tribes, the name can be translated as "mink of white people".

Resettlement underground in the city is associated with difficult climatic conditions - sandstorms often occur here, and the temperature makes the surface almost unsuitable for agriculture. Now it has become easier - there are devices that allow you to condition the air, and a century earlier the only solution was to build underground burrows with year-round twenty degrees.

Almost all local residents worked on the extraction of precious stones, so from the residential "area" a one-and-a-half kilometer tunnel leads to the mines.

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Egor Eremeev
Current material has been prepared by Egor Eremeev
Education: Westminster University (Business & Management), London.
Egor studied and lived in the UK for 8 years and graduated from the university of Westminster. He is currently the co-founder and the director of business development at Smapse Education and personally visits foreign schools and universities, interviews students studying in those institutions.
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