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Everything about Canada: nature, cities, history, places, cuisine, rest


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Everything about Canada: nature, cities, history, places, cuisine, rest


  • Language - English , French
  • Currency - Canadian franc
  • Flight time from Moscow - 10-14 hours
  • Time difference with Moscow is 7 hours.

Canada is the second largest country in the world with an endless variety of landscapes. The beauty of the local nature attracts many visitors here: picturesque mountains, sparkling glaciers, tropical forests, remote beaches - all of this is scattered here in 6 time zones. The land of polar bears, grizzlies, whales, elk is great for snowboarding in the Whistler Mountains, surfing the waves of Nova Scotia, diving to wrecks off the Bruce Peninsula or kayaking, kayaking between the rainforest villages of the native people of Hyda Guaya. For those who are not attracted by sports, there are softer options: a walk in Vancouver Stanley Park, the pink sand beaches of Prince Edward Island.

Canada is an excellent choice for lovers of gastronomic adventures: try coffee with milk, a puff croissant at the street table of a Montreal cafe; eat noodles or visit the Vancouver Asian Night Market; fill a plate with wild salmon and velvet scallops at a British Columbia restaurant, try fries with gravy and cottage cheese in Quebec (by the way, called "putin" - only with an emphasis on the second syllable) or lobster with a drop of ghee in the seaside regions. Explore Toronto's rich palette of musical performers, join the insane Celtic party on Cape Breton Island; visit Edmont's Fringe International Theater Festival (the second largest in the world), Montreal Jazz Festival, Toronto Film Festival, Ontario Classical Theater, the famous St John's Avant-garde Sound Symposium parties, Woody Point Writers' Festival.

Visa

Tourists from Russia will need a visa to visit. You can apply for it at the Canadian visa centers in Moscow , St. Petersburg, Vladivostok. The country is considered not loyal to tourists: more than half of them are refused, and the registration of entry documents can take months.

The list of documents is large:

  • Application form
  • A questionnaire with information about family members (husband / wife, parents, children, siblings)
  • Copy of the passport
  • 2 fresh photos (full face on a white background, 60% takes up the face)
  • Information about the state of the bank account, salary for the last few months
  • Insurance
  • Round-trip flights
  • Accommodation reservation
  • Receipt of payment of visa fee, biometrics
  • Printed statement of consent to the processing of biometric data
  • Copy of marriage certificate, copy of passport, pages with a stamp, birth certificates of children
  • Certificate from the place of study, financial documents of sponsors
  • Information about real estate, own business.

All documents must be translated into English / French and certified by a notary.

  • The term of receipt is from 10 working days to 1 month.
  • The expiration date is 6 months.
  • The cost of a regular visa is 100 $ CAD
  • Visa fee - $ 37.95 CAD.

Nature

The relief of the country is determined by a hilly plain: there are mountain ranges - the Canadian Cordilleras, reaching a height of 2.7 km, less high Appalachians - the Shikshok mountains (north of the Gaspe Peninsula), the Notre Dame massif (right bank of the St. Lawrence River).

The St. Lawrence River is the country's main navigable river with many tributaries (St. Maurice, Ottawa, Manicouagan) that connects the Atlantic with the Great Lakes basin. There are many rivers and lakes in Canada, the famous Niagara Falls is located on the border of Canada and the United States - one of the most powerful waterfalls on Earth.

Among the plants, conifers prevail - black and white spruce, pine, thuja, larch, slightly less deciduous - poplar, birch, willow, alder. The tundra in the north and on the islands consists of willow, birch, sedge. Baffin's Land is hidden under ice and snow all year round.

The fauna is rich here: reindeer, polar hare, arctic fox, musk ox, lemming, gray bear, elk, snow goat, forest caribou deer, wapiti deer, bighorn sheep, wolf, fox, puma, Canadian lynx. There are many rodents, birds, fish here.

Climate and weather

The climate is diverse due to the length of the territory and the features of the relief. It is characterized as continental - cold winters + hot summers: colder in the north, warmer on the Pacific coast. The country's territory includes a cold zone (the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the northern parts of the Labrador Peninsula, the Mackenzie River basin), and a warmer southern one. Southern temperatures in summer reach 20-25 ° C. The Atlantic and the Pacific coast are distinguished by less warm summers, fogs are not uncommon. Near Vancouver in winter, the temperature does not drop below 0 °, and precipitation reaches 5000 mm per year. In the headwaters of the Yukon, the temperature drops to -60 ° C.

Canadian cities

Canadian cities are contrasting, quirky communities with unique architecture and multicultural populations.

  • Montreal is one of the examples of Canadian fusion, combining the modernism of North America and the traditional style of the Old World: graceful old mansions are diluted with tall skyscrapers.
  • Quebec is too sophisticated for a pragmatic North America: it is a symbol of France, European chic on the other side of the Atlantic.
  • Toronto is a local interpretation of the metropolis, a well-kept and comfortable city. The cultural centers of Greektown, Little India, Koreatown allow you to take a walk around the world without leaving Toronto. Climb the 1,815-foot CN Tower or visit the Hockey Hall of Fame. Take a stroll through the St. Lawrence Market - taste delicious delicacies, visit the Toronto Islands.
  • Vancouver - offers a variety of outdoor activities: skiing, descending the Grose Mountain, walks along Kitsilano Beach, exploring the vast Stanley Park, many cultural city attractions.
  • Victoria pays homage to the country's British heritage. Many explore the capital of British Columbia for afternoon tea, guided tours of the beautiful Houses of Parliament or the Royal British Columbia Museum.
  • Ottawa is known for its excellent museums, high-tech enterprises.
  • Calgary is a vibrant, unusual city with an explosive character.

Top 10 places to visit

  1. Jasper National Park is one of the wildest places in the country with stunning natural views.
  2. Banff is a small town at the foot of the Rocky Mountains that attracts lovers of nature and luxury. Guests enjoy skiing, rafting on the Bow River, hiking in Banff National Park, and spa treatments.
  3. Niagara Falls is a famous Canadian-American natural landmark. It is best to take spectacular photos and see the waterfall up close from a boat.
  4. Prince Edward Island is home to green hills, red sandstone cliffs and an abundance of delicious seafood. A wonderful place to swim, surf, hone your golfing skills, watch the seal population (four species live here always or seasonally).
  5. Whistler, British Columbia - The resort area offers skiing, snowboarding, bobsleigh, bungee jumping. Travelers visit Whistler Village, Whistler Olympic Plaza, enjoying a variety of après ski options.

Sights of Canada

Canada is a land of amazing national parks, home to 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

  • Nahanni is the South Nahanni River Valley National Park. Here is the Virginia Falls, 4 mountain canyons. The park has been operating since 1976 and is famous for its sulfuric thermal springs; the vegetation is tundra, mixed forests, tuff deposits are presented.
  • Guai Haanas National Park is located in the northwestern part of British Columbia: it includes the south of Moresby Island, a number of islands southeast of it, the San Cristoval mountain range with Mount La Touche, which is 1123 m high.The park includes several villages including Ninstints, inhabited by the Haida Indians, located in the Haida Guai Archipelago with the largest collection of totem poles.
  • L'Anse aux Meadows is a national park in the province of Newfoundland, Labrador. At the end of the 11th century, Vikings from Greenland landed here and the first European settlement was founded. Archaeological excavations were carried out on the territory of a fishing village on Newfoundland Island in the 1960s: a smithy and 8 dugouts were found.
  • Churchill is a small town with a population of 1000 people annually gathers crowds of tourists who want to see polar bears near. The "World Capital of Polar Bears" is located in the province of Manitoba on the shores of Hudson Bay. It is convenient to observe beluga whales, birds, and the northern lights here. The best time to see polar bears is October and November, when animals migrate to the shores in search of food. The tourism industry offers tours, vehicles called tundra buggies that are safe for tourists and animals.
  • Lunenburg is an example of an English colonial settlement in North American lands, part of the province of Nova Scotia. Before the arrival of the British, the Mikmaki Indian people lived here. The city was founded in 1753. What to see: City Harbor, Lunenberg Academy, Church of England, Atlantic Fisheries Museum, City House.
  • Cape Breton Island in northeastern Nova Scotia was a separate independent colony until 1820. It remains the only place in North America where Gaelic is heard and many concerts of traditional Scottish music are held. The main attraction of the French part of the population is the 18th century Louisbourg Fortress. Popular whale watching, boat or kayak trips to the beautiful scenery at the northern tip of the island.
  • Dinosor Provincial Dinosaur Park is popular for one of the largest dinosaur fossils on the planet. The remains of more than 500 giant animals that inhabited the planet in the Mesozoic era (they belong to 39 different species) are stored here, the remains of freshwater vertebrates were found.

Visiting the national parks Jasper, Yoho and Banff is paid, the entrance cost is different for children and adults.

Rates:

  • Adults (17 to 64 years old) - $ 9.8
  • Adults (over 65) - $ 9.3
  • Children, adolescents (from 6 to 16 years old) - $ 4.9.

Discounts are available for families, excursion groups, schoolchildren and students. Tickets can be purchased on site upon arrival.

Holidays and festivals

  • Honda Celebration of Light, Vancouver (July / August) draws over 1.4 million visitors annually to the shores of the English Gulf. The event includes fireworks, live music, food courts.
  • Osheaga , Montreal (August) - A multi-day indie festival that takes place on six different open-air stages in Jean-Drapeau Park on Saint Helen Island (Montreal). The huge celebration allows local and national young talent to be discovered, offering them the opportunity to play alongside international artists: Coldplay, The Killers, Iggy & The Stooges, Sonic Youth, The Roots, Rufus Wainwright, Arcade Fire, Weezer, Eminem.
  • L'International des Feux Loto-Québec, Montreal Fireworks Festival, Montreal (June / July) is the most prestigious fireworks festival in the world. It receives about 3 million viewers annually, and about 6,000 fireworks are launched during the show.
  • Winterlude , Ottawa, Quebec (February) - An annual winter festival that attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors. Participants go ice skating on the world's largest ice rink, do ice carving, visit a huge winter playground among the majestic snow sculptures.
  • Caribana , Toronto (August) - Caribbean Carnival, a North American street festival that attracts over 1.3 million visitors annually.
  • The Toronto International Film Festival (September) is one of the largest public film screenings in the world, attracting over 480,000 people annually, 5,000 of them are industry professionals. About 400 films from 80 countries are screened in downtown Toronto. All year round, TIFF Bell Lightbox offers screenings, lectures, discussions, festivals, workshops, industry support, the opportunity to meet filmmakers from all over the world.
  • Quebec Summer Festival (July) - The annual 11-day music festival usually starts on the first Thursday of July. The total attendance of the festival is about 1.5 million people per year. Hundreds of performances on dozens of venues - the festival has established itself as a player on the music scene - attracts international headliners from the field of rock and punk music, hip-hop, classical, French-speaking, electronic music.
  • Montreal Jazz Fest , Montreal (June / July) is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest jazz festival in the world. Every year, about 3,000 artists from more than 30 countries take part in it, more than 650 concerts are held (including 450 free outdoor performances), more than 2 million visitors (12.5% of which are tourists) come, 300 accredited journalists. The festival takes place on 20 different stages, including free outdoor stages and indoor concert halls.
  • Pride , Toronto (June) - LGBT parade in the Greater Toronto area. One of the largest gay pride parades, featuring several stages with live performances by performers, DJs, several licensed venues, a large Dyke March, Trans March, Pride Parade. The number of participants ranges from 500 thousand to a million per week, held in 22 city blocks, temporarily closed for car traffic.
  • Pacific National Exhibition , Vancouver (Aug / Sep) - 17-day summer fair, seasonal amusement park, numerous shops and kiosks, performances, nightly fireworks shows, PNE Prize House. The highest attendance at the fair was 1.1 million in 1986.

Cuisine 

Canada is an Anglo-French state with the preserved traditions of indigenous people and numerous migrants. The roots of the local cuisine go back to the culinary traditions of the peoples of North America, emigrants from Europe and Asia.

The brightest part of the country's cuisine is Quebec: steak, steak, langette, roast beef, vegetable puree soups with cauliflower, tomatoes, pumpkin, meat broths with noodles or croutons.

The signature dish is fillet brochette, reminiscent of a kebab: fillet pieces, bacon, onions, mushrooms are skewered and fried on a skewer.

Entertainment

  • Air Canada Center (Toronto) offers to watch hockey matches featuring Toronto Maple Leafs. It is better to buy tickets in advance, several months in advance, because hockey is the main and most popular game in the country.
  • Cirque du Soleil (Montreal) - the troupe consists of 1,300 artists from 50 countries. Circus performances - whole performances, performances of acrobats, clowns, jugglers.
  • La Ronde - Quebec's amusement park offers roller coasters, carousels, Nintendo Center. Works in spring, summer, autumn.
  • Pine Viev Municipal is a golf club near the center of Ottawa.
  • GoodLife Fitness is a club with sports grounds, gyms, massage rooms, a swimming pool.
  • Rideau Carleton Raceway - the capital's racetrack, races are organized weekly.
  • Casino du Lac-Leamy is a casino with an excellent restaurant.
  • Heart & Crown is a stylish nightclub for modern music lovers.

Transport

The country's transport system is developed: the total length of highways - over 1.1 million km, railways - 72,093 km, water transport is developed, 300 ports operate, domestic and international airlines serve 10 international airports (Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Montreal, Halifax), 300 regional, local air airports.

The city is served by a public transport system, metro, light rail, suburban railways in Montreal, Vancouver, Toronto have been established. Canada is a car country: only 11% of Canadians use public transport.

The cost of a ticket for a metropolitan bus does not depend on the distance and is paid with a single ticket worth $ 3.25. The same is the price for a Montreal bus ticket. A day pass costs $ 12.50, for a week - $ 43.75.

Hotels and accommodation

Tourist centers offer accommodation in 4 * hotels from 100 CAD $, outside the city prices are lower - from 40 to 60 dollars per day, campings will cost even less.

The usual division of hotels by "star" is absent, but there are letter designations: T (economy), F ("three stars"), S (4 *), D ("five stars").

There are many colorful, unusual hotels in Canada, where the stay itself is already an adventure. Here are some of them:

  1. Suite 1001 is located in the historic Banque du Canada building (the heart of Montreal's International Quarter) Fantastic, Wow, Extreme Wow suites with museum décor and artifacts adapted to hotel furnishings.
  2. Islands at the Edge of the World is a floating five-star hotel that allows visitors to experience the wild, amazing beauty of island life.
  3. Ocean House is a 12-room resort anchored in a secluded cove on the west coast of Moresby Island. The resort is built and run by the Haida people - people who have been protecting and calling the islands their home since the end of the last Ice Age.
  4. Tuckamore Lodge is a secluded lakeside place with spacious beds, homemade meals, fishing lessons, bird watching, hunting, photography tours with first-class guides.
  5. Built around the Athabasca Glacier, Glacier View Lodge offers stunning views from almost all rooms, restaurant, lobby.

How to get there

Regular flights have been established between Canada and Russia. Flights on the Moscow-Toronto route are operated by Aeroflot with 1 or 2 transfers. The flight is long, it takes at least 10 hours, the price is from 35 to 80 thousand rubles.

From the USA you can get there by train. There is a train from New York to Montreal every day, and seat tickets are $ 105. There are routes Toronto-New York, Vancouver-Seattle, Vancouver-Portland.

Current material has been prepared by Egor Eremeev
Education: Kuban State University, Russia (World Economics); Westminster University (Business & Management), London.
Egor studied and lived in the UK for 8 years and graduated from the university of Westminster. He is currently the co-founder and the director of business development at Smapse Education and personally visits foreign schools and universities, interviews students studying in those institutions.
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