Today one can hardly be surprised by schools of design and architecture, bold artistic solutions - but just a hundred years ago, when people had a different mindset, these thoughts went into a stupor. Bauhaus School, established in 1019, became more than a place of study: the center of active creative people in Germany, whose thoughts were only about creativity, design and architecture, about how to change people's lives, make them better and more comfortable. The school passed a difficult way of formation, but today it undoubtedly can be called legendary and revolutionary - what else to expect from creative people deeply in love with their work?
History of the School
The youth of the early twentieth century was characterized by rebellion and a rethinking of established classical values. This marked the beginning of an artistic revolution: it became clear that to achieve architectural goals do not have to use lush ornaments and patterns, you can try a new one. The people who combined their views in the word "functionalism" were the originators of the Bauhaus school.
In 1919 a manifesto was issued, which declared architecture to be the main focus of creativity and design, applied art was equated with elegance, and product quality became the priority of production. This manifesto is the first document just formed by the merger of the Saxo-Weimar School of Fine Arts and the Saxo-Weimar School of Applied Arts.
In 1925, the Weimaro government stopped funding the school, leading to a move to Dessau for six years. In 1932, after the arrival of the National Socialists, the school was closed. The Nationalists had long observed it, believing that the Bauhaus was a breeding ground for Bolshevik culture.
After the closure of the school, the movement did not die, but began to spread around the world:
- Some artists and architects emigrated to Israel, where today more than 4,000 buildings in the Functionalist style are built.
- After the school closed, its director and seven teachers moved to Moscow. German specialists left a bright architectural trace in Sverdlovsk, Orsk, Magnitogorsk, Perm, Solikamsk, Birobidzhan.
At different times among the teachers and students of the school were:
- Max Bill
- Naum Gabo
- Johannes Itten
- Paul Klee
- Oskar Schlemmer
- Gerhard Marx and others.
Today there is the Bauhaus Archive Museum in Berlin, which includes works by schoolchildren. The second museum is in Weimar, on the site where the school itself once originated. The third museum is in Dessau.
- The Dessau Museum was designed by a graduate architect from the Bauhaus School.
- During their studies, students studied subjects that help blur the line between the artist and the craftsman, the plastic arts.
- The motto of the school's first principal was "The highest goal of all the arts that exist is construction."