When a person decides to take up the study of a completely new language for himself, he can be guided by different aspirations and thoughts. Someone needs to learn a new language, because it will be useful in a new place of residence or for traveling to countries where it is popular, someone - for the sake of melody and beauty, and others just want to develop the brain and gain new knowledge.
To choose the right language to study, you first need to decide on a number of questions, the answers to which will greatly help in determining and finding a suitable direction:
- how much time a person is willing to devote to learning a new language - 3 hours daily, 40-50 minutes a week, and so on;
- for what purpose it is necessary to learn a new language;
- whether it will be possible to apply it in the future to obtain conversational practice;
- whether the learned language will be useful in your country or for its use it will be necessary to go abroad;
- whether it will be possible to devote time to culture and history together with the development of a new language;
- which language group is closer and more comfortable to learn.
If there is a certain interest in any language and a person understands that he is ready to devote himself entirely to it and everything connected with it, then this interest must be followed, because it will contribute to progress in any way. For example, if you really like how French or Spanish sounds, you are interested in the history of these countries and how the language was formed, it is worth replenishing the arsenal of languages with them.
If there is no interest, it is recommended to start with the languages of your own group. It will be easier for an Englishman to start with Italian or French.
What characteristics determine the complexity of a language?
There are a number of criteria that allow you to classify each of the languages and determine how difficult it will be for perception:
- the number of words that are similar in sound, but with different meanings - homonyms;
- Number of rules
- Average word length
- similarity of transcriptions of words with their spelling.
The most complex languages of the world
Complex languages include those that have their own alphabet, an impressive list of rules and a large amount of vocabulary. Learning such languages takes an average of 2 thousand hours.
The main difficulty of Hungarian is that it has as many as 35 cases! In the pronunciation of Hungarian, there are often guttural consonants, which is difficult for people who have not used similar sounds before.
Almost all letters in Arabic have 4 different shapes, the choice of which depends on where the letter is located in the word. In texts, vowel sounds are not written, and the verb always stands before the noun, having 3 forms - singular, double and plural. A verb used in the present tense can have 13 forms. In Arabic, there are many guttural sounds that are difficult to pronounce by an uneducated person.
Chinese writing is recognized as one of the most complex in the world, because each character is a separate word, and by its appearance it will not be possible to understand how to pronounce it correctly.
The second difficulty of Chinese is intonation. The phonetics of the language is built in such a way that the intonation with which the sound is pronounced can completely change the meaning of the words. In other dialects, there are up to 4 variants of intonation.
The ability to read Japanese signs and characters will not help a person speak this language if he does not know the pronunciation of words. In Japanese, there are from 2 to 3 thousand different characters, divided into several groups. All characters can be read in two ways - Chinese or Japanese, and the meaning of some may vary depending on which signs are next to it.
- Tuyuca, the language of Colombians
The language is used by people living near the Amazon River. In Tuyuk, there are from 40 to 140 different genera, and words are formed from fragments of other words. The ending of all verbs in the language depends on how the speaker received this information: if he tells about what he saw personally, one ending is used, but if the narrator assumes or guesses about something, another ending is used.
The simplest languages of the world
It takes about 650 hours to master such languages, and they all belong to the Germanic or Latin groups.
In the language of Italians there are no cases, which greatly facilitates the process of memorizing the constructions of sentences and phrases. Simple vocabulary coupled with simple pronunciation make Italian one of the most easily learned languages. Words often have a Latin root, so they are easier to perceive.
Spanish has the simplest set of spelling and grammar rules, and most words are borrowed from English or Italian. There is also Esperanto - an artificially created language that is extremely easy to learn with knowledge of Spanish.
Almost all have been learning English since school days, so many people have a minimum to start studying at a high level. In English, there are no cases and genders, and verbs change only when used in 3 persons. If a person knows 1500-2000 words, he will already be able to make out some texts and translate the spoken language of a friend in general terms.
Many of the words we hear all our lives related to art, politics or clothing came from French. In total, there are more than 2,000 words in it, and almost half of them came from English.