Germany is known for the long traditions of university teaching. The first university in the country was opened in Gödelberg in 1386. The philosophy of higher education was formed in the XIX century. The founder of the German educational system is Wilhelm von Humboldt. It was he who formulated the basic principles of German university training.
- Territory - 357 thousand square meters. Km
- Population - 82.5 million people
- Language - German
- Capital - Berlin (3.4 million people)
- Currency - Euro (EUR)
Today there are 340 higher educational institutions in the country. These include public and accredited private universities. 116 of them are classical, technical (Universitäten, TU), in 167 students study applied sciences (Fachhochschulen). Also in the country there are 63 private institutions of higher education and 40 - theological orientation. In Germany, foreign students can receive vocational training in more than 4 hundred specialties. More than 190 thousand foreign students study in the country today. Their support is provided by specialized departments at universities - Akademisches Auslandsamt.
Higher education in Germany
Training in the country is in the competence of the relevant organizations of the federal states. This is due to differences in the conditions of admission to universities, programs in the regions of the country. But there are general educational standards that are observed by all educational institutions.
The degrees assigned to Germany today differ from those adopted in most English-speaking countries. At the end of the humanities faculty, students usually receive the degree of Magister Artium. They can continue their studies in graduate school. Such programs allow you to get the degree of Doktor.
The transition to a new three-tier model is carried out gradually. The first step is Grundstudium, or the basic cycle. It lasts 2 years, involves the study of a number of disciplines (determined by specialization), the passing of intermediate examinations. Successful graduation of Grundstudium allows you to continue your studies at the Hauptstudium level. It represents the main learning cycle. Hauptstudium is designed for 5 semesters, provides for in-depth study of special disciplines. The training ends with the passing of qualification examinations and the receipt of a diploma. State examinations are handed over to students of pedagogical, medical, and law faculties. The result of the second stage is the receipt of a bachelor's degree. After receiving the diploma, Germans and foreigners can start their professional activities.
After undergraduate studies, students who continue their studies receive a Master degree. The master's program assumes the study of two equivalent specializations, or one main and two additional ones.
The third step of the new higher German education is postgraduate study. Thesis can be prepared in one of the Universitäten country. The postgraduate course lasts 2 to 4 years. The student who is defending the thesis is awarded the Doktor degree.
Universities in Germany are not just educational institutions. A large number of applied and fundamental scientific researches are carried out on their basis. Faculties of universities specialize in the field of humanities, natural sciences, art, social sciences, economics, medicine, theology, jurisprudence, forestry, and agriculture.
Engineering specialty can be obtained at the German Technical University. Such educational institutions were historically formed as a subspecies of Universitäten. Today they are more universal than in the XX, especially in the XIX century. In technical universities, students are offered, in addition to basic engineering, humanitarian and creative programs.
Professional training in the country can be obtained at universities of applied sciences. The training course in most of them is shorter than in the Universitäten. Also, educational institutions are distinguished by the absence of graduate school.
Academic education for creative individuals in Germany is offered to be received in musical, art universities. Here students study graphics, design, sculpture, cinema, music, decoration, photography. In universities, professional musicians, artists, teachers of relevant disciplines are trained.
The quality of teaching is assessed according to unified objective criteria. The ratings of universities are compiled by the specialists of CHE (Center for Development of Higher Schools) and the newspaper Die Zeit. AT The top 30 universities of the country annually comprise the educational institutions of Saxony, Thuringia, Eastern Pomerania, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg.
Cost of accommodation and training
Education in the country can be called relatively inexpensive. In the public universities of 6 lands (Saar, Hamburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia), the semester of training costs about 500 €. In Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Berlin, Schleswig-Holstein, the payment includes only administrative fees of 50-60 €, social - 40 - 180 € per semester. Only free students (for example, those wishing to plunge into university life pensioners) and those who study for more than 5 years fully pay for the training. The maximum cost of a semester does not exceed 800 €. The cost of textbooks is usually up to 200 € per semester. Health insurance will cost 280 € per year. In private universities to study more. The cost of an annual program can be 4 - 15 thousand €.
To live in Germany will have to spend from 640 € per month. For an annual stay in the country, the student must have a minimum of 7716 € (on visa requirements). Confirm solvency can be an extract from the bank, written guarantees of sponsors.
The country provides financial assistance for talented students, graduate students, teachers, graduates of foreign universities, engaged in research, scientific work. A common requirement for future fellows is the knowledge of German or English (depending on the institution, project, program). Scholarships are most often distributed through the DAAD line. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) unites more than 200 universities and 120 student organizations. The service has information centers around the world (there are 48 in all) and representative offices (14). Each year the organization issues 55,000 scholarships. Also, financial assistance is provided by public funds, large concerns, the church, municipal authorities (in separate lands).
In Germany there are about 15 individual scholarship programs for students. In the framework of scholarship projects, financial support is provided for masters, graduate students, and young scientists. Scholarships are given to those who receive basic and postgraduate education in the country.
Students of economic specialties can apply for scholarships for the European Recovery Program. Financial support is provided for third-year students of management faculties, enterprise economics. The scholarship covers 10 months of study at state universities in the country. The program assumes theoretical training and practical training at the enterprises of the country. The requirements for candidates are limited to age limits (up to 32 years). Fellows must also be fluent in German. Semester scholarships are awarded to German students. There are also separate grants for in-depth study of the language at summer courses.
Graduate students, young teachers of natural and technical disciplines can apply for financial support within the framework of the Mikhail Lomonosov program. Specialists are given research grants to work on the thesis in German universities. Employers of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation subordinate to educational institutions may apply for such financial support. A similar program works in the humanitarian sector. The project "Immanuel Kant" is designed for graduate students, young professionals of the pedagogical profile of the subordinate institutions of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.
A lot of specialized scholarships are allocated through DAAD. Financial support is provided to students of journalistic, law, and art faculties. For graduate students, young scientists of various specialties, semiannual, annual, semester scholarships are also provided. The country also provides funding for short-term scientific internships for university teachers, scientists older than 65 years. The joint scholarship program Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft and DAAD allows to partially or completely compensate for the expenses of foreign graduate students, doctors, candidates of sciences for research projects, and advanced training at the country's universities. Funds, financed by political parties, also award scholarships to foreign students. For example, to study at a magistracy you can get funds in Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
The future scholarship holder, irrespective of his or her specialty, age, status, must submit a questionnaire-application, a resume, a copy of the certificate, diplomas, several recommendations (from the places of study, work) to the commission of the university, fund, international center (other financing organization's program), a certificate from the language Courses. Graduate students also present scientific publications, a cover letter from a foreign university with the justification for the need for training in Germany.
Work and study
Without a work permit, foreign students (not EU citizens) can work in Germany 90/180 days a year (20 hours per week). In a number of federal states, the restrictions are more stringent. Here, students are allowed to work in organizations and enterprises only on vacation.
Visa for students is issued for about 3 weeks. This requires a standard package of documents. The procedure for obtaining a visa is similar to that for other EU countries. In Germany, a student visa can be re-registered in a residence permit. This is provided for students of long-term programs.