- Education system in Russia
- Preschool education in Russia
- Secondary education in Russia
- School exams in Russia
- Grammar schools and lyceums
- International schools
- Schedule and school holidays in Russia
- Three types of higher education institutions in Russia
- Diploma structures in the Russian education system
Education in Moscow, like education in Russia as a whole, is structurally similar to the Central European system with some key differences. The education system is divided into four main sections: primary, secondary, higher and postgraduate. Tens of thousands of kindergartens, schools, 776 higher educational institutions in 82 regions of Russia accept students from 2 to 18 years old. Russian educational institutions accept students of any age for postgraduate studies. Russian education (higher) has been brought in line with the requirements of the Bologna Process and is available to foreign students from any corner of the world.
Education system in Russia
Russian education is a 4-stage system. It takes 11 years to get secondary education, then students will be able to enter a higher educational institution. After successfully completing the 9th grade, students receive a certificate of basic general education with the opportunity to continue a two-year secondary education. After the end of the 11th grade, a certificate of complete secondary education is issued , which serves as proof that the student is entitled to higher education. Further, the education system offers the student several options:
- Higher education in one of the universities, institutes
- Secondary vocational education (offered by colleges - colleges, colleges, lyceums, technical schools)
- Work and early career.
The government coordinates all levels of education in Russia, providing free preschool education, education for all up to grade 11, 60% of places in universities, as well as more than half of places in postgraduate education. Most of the schools are state-owned, but in recent decades private kindergartens, schools and universities have appeared.
Preschool education in Russia
The education of children begins with preschool education - attending kindergarten until the age of 6-7 years, but this stage is not mandatory. Children go to public and private kindergartens and other preschool institutions focused on the development of intelligence, physical and psychological maturity.
Secondary education in Russia
Modern education in Moscow and Russia is divided into three stages:
- primary education (4 years)
- basic general education (5 years)
- secondary education (2 years).
The main attention in the Russian school is paid to the intellectual, emotional, moral and physical development of the individual. It is aimed at developing abilities that allow students to adapt to life in society, as well as help to consciously choose a professional education, a future specialty.
In all state educational institutions, except for preschool, instruction is conducted in Russian. Students with a Russian passport have the right to receive secondary education in their native language.
The main curriculum includes compulsory disciplines:
- foreign languages
- Social Studies
- natural Sciences
- + high school students choose optional disciplines.
Each school can operate according to its own curriculum, based on government requirements, introduce elements of web-education. Education centers in Moscow also include schools specializing in certain subjects - mathematics, music, art, sports. Specialized educational institutions also offer additional. education in Moscow for children: music, sports, art, circles and clubs work.
School exams in Russia
Educational institutions in Moscow and Russia hold final exams after the completion of the 9th grade (OGE) - testing in basic subjects. Pupils receive a certificate of basic general education, which gives the right to continue their studies in secondary school or start secondary vocational education in Moscow and any city in Russia. After the end of grade 11, students pass the Unified State Exam, which gives the right to receive education in universities in Moscow and other cities of the country, receive a certificate of secondary general education.
Grammar schools and lyceums
What kind of education is better to get in order to be eligible to enter a Russian and foreign university ?
In the 1990s, new types of secondary schools appeared - gymnasiums and lyceums, (public / private). The duration of study here is up to 12 years, more advanced training programs, additional education are offered.
The best education in Moscow is offered by private schools:
- Atlantic International School offers training in English and Russian curricula, consists of a kindergarten, primary and secondary school.
- British International School offers British and Russian study programs as well as English as a second language. The school is attended by children from 3 to 17 years old.
- The French school Lycee Francais is focused on children who are French nationals or fluent in this language from 3 to 17-18 years old.
- The International School of Moscow (ISM) offers a British basic education program for children aged 2-13.
- The Slavic-Anglo-American School (SAAS) "Marina" is educational institutions with the study of foreign languages, covering primary, secondary education for children from 6 to 17 years old.
Schedule and school holidays in Russia
The Department of Education of Moscow and other subjects conducts training for a 6-day school week (except for 1 grade). The academic year consists of 34 weeks, includes 27-36 teaching hours per week: training lasts from September 1 to early June, school exams are held in June.
In public and private independent schools, the calendar of holidays in Russia is different. Public schools in Russia follow an annual timetable set by the Ministry of Education and Science. This includes vacations spread over four seasons: a 10-day break in the fall, an 11-day break in the winter, a 9-day break in the spring, and a break of about 3 months in the summer (plus first graders get an additional 10-day break in February).
Private international schools in Russia can set their own school holidays. Most of them follow a similar vacation pattern - in autumn, winter, spring and summer - with the main differences:
- Longer Winter Holidays: Russia follows the Orthodox Christmas calendar, which celebrates Christmas on January 7 (Gregorian calendar). Public schools are open until the end of December. International schools close a few days before December 25th.
- Different dates for all holidays: Some international schools also have shorter fall and spring breaks.
- Additional vacation: International schools leave children in May for a few days. Some schools may have additional weekends for Easter (which falls on a different date each year).
Holidays in Russian public schools
- Autumn holidays: late October - early November
- Winter holidays: end of December - 8/10 January
- Extra break for first graders: last week of February
- Spring break: last week of March
- Summer break: June 1 - September 1.
Three types of higher education institutions in Russia
Modern education in Moscow and Russia is offered by higher educational institutions with a wide range of programs at all levels.
The higher education system in Russia is known for its achievements and emphasis in science and technology. Many courses offered in government institutions are focused on natural sciences, but a wide variety of programs in the humanities, social sciences are also offered.
- Universities are scientific and educational complexes, multidisciplinary educational institutions with a variety of programs.
- Academies place more emphasis on research and practical skills, usually focusing on specific subject areas: art, architecture, or science.
- Institutes are independent branches of universities or academies that offer professional educational courses.
In the past decades, in addition to traditional Russian educational institutions, private universities have appeared, offering a wide range of programs.
Diploma structures in the Russian education system
The education system in Moscow and Russia is largely based on Bologna principles, but the Russian Ministry of Education structures degrees somewhat differently than other European countries.
- Upon completion of secondary education, students can obtain a bachelor's or specialist's degree, which allows students to subsequently earn a master's degree. A bachelor's degree is awarded after four years of full-time study, a specialist - after five years. Both qualifications require students to successfully defend their diploma and pass exams. The Bachelor's degree is awarded in all areas except medicine, where the duration of the first stage of study is six years.
- A master's degree is awarded after two years of study (of which one is dedicated to research), which includes practice and preparation for a defense.
- Students with a master's degree are eligible to continue their studies in doctoral studies.
- Postgraduate education in Russia is divided into two parts, and two degrees are required to confirm the status of a scientist. Postgraduate studies can only be obtained at a university or research institute. Upon successful completion of the first part of postgraduate education, students are awarded the degree of Candidate of Science.
- The doctoral degree is awarded after an additional 2-4 years of doctoral studies.
In the Soviet system, there was no bachelor's or master's degree - they were introduced to bring the Russian education system in line with international standards, the Bologna process. This change helped Russian diplomas gain recognition abroad.