Many modern Russians choose study abroad . It is believed that educational tourism is the achievement of the 21st century. In fact, the roots of Russian students abroad go deep into the past. According to historical sources, the first Russians left to study abroad in 1736. It was then that the scholars of the Lomonosov Imperial Academy were admitted to the natural science faculty of the Magdeburg University and to the Freiburg Mining Academy in Germany.
In the XVIII century, units studied abroad. But gradually the practice of training teachers and professors in Europe became traditional for Russia. Only in Germany by 1835 there were 84 talented students trained.
The formation of Russian students abroad
The most active development of Russian students abroad was in the XIX century. This was due to objective reasons. In those days in Russia, higher schools were accessible mainly to yesterday's high school students and graduates of several privileged schools. The certificate obtained in the technical, commercial, real school, did not give the right to choose a specialty in the university. For graduates of these educational institutions, only the institutes of the national economy were opened.
The second factor was the differentiation of higher education. Get it could mostly men. So, before 1917 in Russia only 3 women's higher education institutions operated.
In the 20s of the last century academic migration to the west was suspended. The reason for this was the opening of a number of specialized higher education institutions of joint education.
The second wave of academic migration started after the collapse of the USSR. In the mid-1990s, many young people went to study abroad to find a better life and career prospects. Studying abroad again began to develop actively. A positive trend is observed today. According to the latest statistics, annually the number of people traveling abroad with educational purposes is increased by 50%.
Russian students in Europe
Since the formation of Russian students abroad, Western European countries have made the largest contribution to the training of highly qualified personnel. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries talented young people and girls rejected by the national higher school replenished the contingent of the leading universities in Germany,France , Switzerland , Belgium. Also a large number of Russians went to study inItaly .
The largest Russian student community was formed in Germany. In particular, at the old University of Heidelberg by the beginning of the XX century, more Russians were trained than in 1850 in all of Europe. Many graduates of German universitieshave written their names into history. Among them, mathematician Sofya Kovalevskaya, poet Osip Mandelstam, ethnographer Nikolai Miklukho-Maclay.
The second most popular state for Russian students was Switzerland. Mostly girls studied at the polytechnics of the country. This was due to the fact that in the country there was no division into women's and men's universities, students of both sexes had equal rights to receive education.
In the universities of France (in Paris, Montpellier, Nancy), Russian students received knowledge in the field of history, culture, and art. Qualified specialists in the field of civil engineering were trained by higher schoolsBelgium . In Italy, the most popular were the legal, physical and mathematical, medical, philosophical faculties. Today, priority countries in the academic sphere have been addedUnited Kingdom , Spain , Czech Republic . And one of the main educational areas were business, economics, finance.