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Features of secondary education in Russia


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Collected popular questions of applicants about secondary schools - advantages, features of admission and types of institutions.

The concept has a vague meaning, therefore it causes a lot of confusion among applicants. We will answer popular questions:

What is secondary general education in Russia?

The traditional name for the educational stage, which is located between the elementary grades and higher education. The general level corresponds to grades 10-11. As synonyms, they use the concept of “general” and words that are close to varying degrees: “basic general”, “complete general”, “learned at school”, “primary professional”, “technical”. The step was formed in the Middle Ages in Europe, in Russia it appeared in the 19th century as part of the gymnasium system. The maturity certificate reflects the content of the program, which is structured differently in different countries.

What is specialized secondary education?

The name of the intermediate stage between school and university . You can get training in colleges, technical schools, lyceums - their main difference from universities in the level of training. In secondary schools, they give a basic level of training. The program includes the study of professions on the basis of a general level + preparation in the chosen direction. The mass appearance of the SSUZ system was launched during the Soviet era in the 1920s-1930s under the leadership of A.V. Lunacharsky, who considered such preparation an urgent issue for the young Soviet republic.

Is secondary special education 11 classes?

It is impossible to get such training in school : you need to go to college, technical school or school. In the USSR, the SSUZ system was broader, but today it has been abolished. In technical schools, you can master a profession in 2-4 years. Secondary educational institutions carry out educational activities with the aim of deepening activities on the basis of the basic general, (complete) general or initial professional level.

What is initial vocational education?

Since 2013, this type has been included in the vocational training system. NGO is understood as the initial level of training of workers. In Soviet times, it was possible to get initial training in vocational schools, at present vocational schools have been renamed into professional technical lyceums and colleges. You can apply here on the basis of 9 or 11 grades.

Incomplete secondary specialized education - how is it?

Usually this term is understood as grades 8-9 of the school. The concept came to us from the Soviet education system.

What does a secondary specialized education diploma give?

The diploma gives the opportunity to work in a profession you have mastered or (another option) to continue your studies at the university.

Maturity certificates in Russia and abroad: are they equal or not?

In the 20th century, there was an active development of quality standardization methods with the aim of mutual recognition of maturity certificates by different countries. As a result, states can be divided into 4 groups:

  • Signatories to the convention on the equivalence of diplomas
  • With partially recognized certificates
  • Bilateral signatories and mutually recognizing certificates
  • Diplomas of a number of states are not recognized in Europe.

Russia falls into the second category: the main reason is the different duration of the programs. In the West, study in schools lasts 12 years, in our country - 11. Another reason is the inconsistency of the USE standards in terms of the set of disciplines.

Secondary Special Education Diploma: Graduate Prospects

Direction = average salary:

  1. Turner = 25,000R
  2. Locksmith-repairman = 27 000R
  3. Foundry = 32,000R
  4. Thermist = 33,000R
  5. Technician-technician = 40,000R
  6. Joiner = 40,000R
  7. Chemist-technologist = 40,000R
  8. Energy drink = 45 000R
  9. Milling cutter = 45 000R
  10. Electrician = 50,000R
  11. Surveyor = 60 000R
  12. Miner = 65,000R
  13. Driller = 85,000R.

The attractiveness of secondary schools in 2020

  • At the level of power: today there is an urgent need of the economy for workers. In 2015, the deficit was recognized by the State Duma when discussing the Ministry of Education and Science's plan to improve the academic system. Pavel Kudyukin, co-chairman of the University Solidarity trade union, former Deputy Labor Minister of the Russian Federation, believes: “Secondary vocational education is sometimes better connected to the needs of the labor market than higher education”.
  • According to the recruiting agency Superjob.ru: the attractiveness of secondary schools among students and graduates is increasing. First of all, the growing popularity is associated with disillusionment with higher institutions, which provide less and less competitive advantages. On the other hand, there is a demand for work areas that are more in demand on the labor market.
  • Applicants: more and more often, parents and children come to the idea that entering a university can be postponed, but now it is more important to get a working profession that guarantees a stable income and competitiveness. According to the HSE, the share of applicants entering schools increased to 51% in 2019 and exceeded the number of students at universities. But the interest in secondary educational institutions is not always "monetized" properly - students often give a low assessment of the quality and are not satisfied with their career prospects. One of the reasons for the attractiveness of secondary schools is the lack of the need to take the exam. In addition, after graduating from college or college, students can confidently enter the university. Therefore, schools often become an alternative to schools, the quality of which dramatically changes.

Motives of young people entering secondary specialized educational institutions

  • 57% = Get trained on the chosen trajectory
  • 11.7% = Become financially independent from parents as soon as possible
  • 11.5% = The diploma of the secondary school will help you to enter the university easier
  • 6.3% = Failed to enter the university
  • 5.2% = Parents made the decision
  • 4.2% = Other
  • 2.2% = Receive a respite from the army
  • 2.0% = No answer.
  • Service and trade sphere
  • Economics, finance, credit and banking
  • IT technologies and programming
  • Pedagogy and education
  • Healthcare and medicine
  • Technical professions and industrial production.

Why do students choose secondary vocational schools

  • Interesting program
  • Highly paid profession
  • Kudos
  • An opportunity to benefit society and the country
  • Family tradition
  • No special knowledge is needed for the profession
  • Career prospects
  • The ability to go abroad
  • The path to an independent life
  • Coincidence of the student's abilities with the nature of the work.

Required system reboot

The system of secondary educational institutions inherited from the USSR is actively developing, new technologies and market approaches are being introduced. In 2012, Russia joined the international non-profit organization World Skills, which promotes working professions through competitions around the world. The organization's programs are liquidating unclaimed and outdated areas, revising the content of plans for demanded blue-collar occupations. HSE experts believe that workers and technicians in the 21st century should have more flexible, versatile and complex skills. New professions appear:

  • Mechatronics and Mobile Robotics
  • Additive technologies
  • System administration
  • Graphic design
  • "Technology of aesthetic services" (cosmetologists and masseurs).

Some colleges are becoming universities. For example, the toy technical school in Sergiev Posad (Sergiev Posad Institute of Toys) became a branch of the Higher School of Folk Arts. “Such secondary specialized educational institutions are leaving the regional subordination to federal subordination, which allows improving the quality of the teaching staff, ” notes Pavel Kudyukin.

The main problem of rebooting the secondary educational institutions has become an outdated material and technical base + there is an urgent need for retraining of the teaching staff. One of the President's messages talks about the modernization of more than 2,000 workshops in colleges and schools by 2022. Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova announced that by 2024 new equipment will appear in 5,000 workshops with 25,000 seats.

Computerization becomes a challenge when the importance of routine work, requiring personnel to perform standard, algorithmic actions, is steadily decreasing. The trend is typical not only for manual professions, but also for intellectual activities - accountants, bank analysts, trade consultants.

The cost

About 70% of students study in technical schools for free, but the share of budget places is declining. The main reason is the reduction in funding from the state budget.

Instruction for admission to a technical school, college or school on a budget

Study the profile of the school

For most educational institutions, there is a simplified admission procedure, but it does not apply to military educational institutions or colleges, in the programs of which information constituting state secrets is studied.

Prepare for study

It would be a mistake to think that the schools require less of the students! It is better to fill in all the gaps in the program before admission. If there are no entrance exams for your profile, don't relax. They enroll on a competitive basis, the number of budget places is decreasing, so the competition for certificates can be high.

Follow the deadlines for submitting documents

Until March 1, schools publish all the necessary information for applicants: admission rules, admission procedure under contracts for paid places, a list of profiles. Until June 1, the number of budget places will be known. Usually, it is necessary to submit documents on August 20-25, admission to creative directions goes until August 1.

Write an application for admission

You can apply after finishing 9 or 11 grades.

Find out the requirements and the possibility of targeted admission

Targeted admission assumes that future employers, organizations, and the state will pay for your studies. The form is suitable for those who are worried about future employment. Applications can be submitted until August 15 / July 20.

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